Address: Foshan,China                Phone:         +86 13809220755             Email: [email protected]
 [email protected]

Vapor Pressure Deficit Impacts on Cannabis Plants Cultivation

By exploring the distinctions among concepts such as vapor pressure deficit, relative humidity, grains per pound, dew point, dry bulb temperature, and wet bulb temperature, we gain insights into the specific environmental needs of cannabis cultivation. Implementing a grow room HVAC system to manage temperature and humidity levels precisely is crucial. This ensures the establishment of an optimal vapor pressure deficit across different growth stages, facilitating robust growth of plants in indoor cultivation spaces.

The health and productivity of cannabis plants are significantly influenced by the conditions within the grow room, especially humidity, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit. These factors are key determinants of the plant's transpiration rates, which critically affect both the yield and quality of the cannabis.


Understanding the Humidity before Vapor Pressure Deficit

To fully grasp the concept of vapor pressure deficit, one must first understand humidity. Simply put, humidity measures the presence of water vapor in the atmosphere. This factor plays a significant role in the cultivation of cannabis, impacting a range of environmental conditions and plant physiological responses.

What is Humidity

Humidity is a measure of the water vapor content in the air. Water vapor is the gaseous state of water and is invisible. Despite being a common atmosphere component, its concentration can vary significantly depending on temperature and air pressure. It is vital to manage humidity in a cannabis grow room. Too much humidity can lead to mold and disease, while too little can stress plants, affecting their growth and the quality of their buds.

Three Metrics for Measuring Humidity

Three primary metrics are utilized to assess and control the humidity within a grow room: relative humidity, grains per pound, and dew point. Each indicator provides a different perspective on humidity levels and how they affect growth conditions.


Relative Humidity

Relative humidity (RH) is a measure that indicates the level of water vapor present in the air relative to the maximum amount of water vapor that air can hold at a specific temperature. It is expressed as a percentage, showing how "full of moisture" the air is compared to its total capacity at that temperature.

The interaction between relative humidity and temperature is based on the physical principle that warm air can hold more moisture than cold air. As the temperature increases, the capacity of the air to hold water vapor increases, which means that if the amount of moisture in the air stays the same while the temperature rises, the relative humidity will decrease because the air is less saturated. Conversely, if the temperature drops, the air's capacity to hold moisture decreases, and the relative humidity increases because the air is closer to its moisture-holding capacity.

This relationship is important in a cannabis cultivation environment because plants transpire more in conditions of low relative humidity, potentially leading to dehydration if not carefully managed. High relative humidity, however, can limit transpiration, slowing plant growth and increasing the risk of fungal diseases.

To optimize cannabis growth and health, understanding the best relative humidity levels for each growth stage is key, as these stages have distinct requirements. During the seedling stage, a higher relative humidity of around 65-70% is beneficial, supporting gentle transpiration and encouraging healthy root development without overburdening the young plants with the need for excessive water uptake. As plants move into the vegetative stage, the optimal relative humidity can be gradually reduced to 40-70%, fostering a more vigorous growth rate and ensuring that transpiration occurs efficiently without promoting conditions conducive to mold or pest infestation. In the flowering stage, maintaining relative humidity even lower, around 40-50%, helps optimize bud development and further reduces the risks of mold and fungal diseases. This careful relative humidity adjustment across the stages supports the ideal vapor pressure deficit, facilitating optimal growth conditions throughout the plant's lifecycle.

Understanding the dynamics between relative humidity and temperature is pivotal for creating an ideal growing environment for cannabis. To delve deeper into this topic, it's essential to comprehend how relative humidity (RH) is calculated, as this measure directly influences plant transpiration and overall health. Here's a closer look at the formula used to calculate relative humidity:



  • RH is the relative humidity,
  • E is the current amount of moisture in the air (actual vapor pressure),
  • Es is the maximum amount of moisture that the air can hold at the current temperature (saturation vapor pressure).

For this example, imagine that the current amount of moisture in the air (E) is 10 grams per cubic meter, and the maximum amount of moisture that the air can hold at the current temperature (Es​) is 20 grams per cubic meter.

Plugging these values into the formula gives us:


This means that the relative humidity is 50%, indicating that the air is holding half of the moisture it is capable of holding at the current temperature.

This formula quantifies the percentage of moisture the air contains relative to its maximum capacity at a given temperature. By understanding and applying this formula, cannabis cultivators can fine-tune their growing conditions to maintain optimal humidity levels for each stage of the plant's development, ensuring robust growth and minimizing potential issues related to improper moisture levels.

Grains Per Pound (GPP)

Grains Per Pound(GPP) is the weight of water vapor contained in a pound of dry air. One grain of water vapor is approximately 1/7000th of a pound, making GPP an extremely precise method for measuring the moisture content in the air.

The key difference between GPP and Relative Humidity lies in their sensitivity to temperature. Relative Humidity is a ratio, expressed as a percentage, that compares the current amount of moisture in the air to the maximum amount of moisture that air can hold at a specific temperature. As a result, RH is highly temperature-dependent; as temperature increases or decreases, the air's capacity to hold moisture changes, affecting the RH value. GPP, on the other hand, measures the actual weight of water vapor in the air, offering a temperature-independent metric. This means that GPP remains constant regardless of temperature fluctuations, providing a stable and reliable measure of moisture content that is particularly useful for managing environmental conditions in grow rooms.

The ideal GPP range varies depending on the growth stage and specific strain requirements. Generally, a GPP of 40 to 60 grains per pound is considered optimal for most stages of cannabis growth. This range ensures enough moisture in the air to support plant transpiration and nutrient uptake without creating conditions conducive to pest or mold development. During curing, GPP may be adjusted lower to help slowly reduce moisture content in the harvested buds, ensuring they dry evenly and retain quality.

To further refine environmental control in grow rooms, understanding how to calculate Grains Per Pound (GPP) is necessary. The formula for calculating GPP is based on the specific humidity (or mixing ratio) of the air and the air's total pressure. However, a more simplified and commonly used formula for GPP calculation in the context of indoor growing and HVAC applications is as follows:



  • RH is the Relative Humidity as a percentage,
  • Es​ is the saturation vapor pressure at the air's current temperature (in inches of mercury, "Hg),
  • P is the total atmospheric pressure (in inches of mercury, "Hg),
  • 7000 is the number of grains per pound of air.

This formula calculates the weight of water vapor in grains contained in a pound of dry air, considering the air's current temperature and humidity level.

Let's illustrate this with a simple example:

Assume the relative humidity (RH) is 50%, the saturation vapor pressure (Es) at the current temperature is 0.363 inches of mercury, and the total atmospheric pressure (P) is 29.92 inches of mercury.

Plugging these values into the formula, we get:


This result means that under these conditions, there are approximately 42.5 grains of water vapor per pound of dry air.

Calculating GPP provides a clear, temperature-independent metric for assessing moisture content, enabling more precise control over the environmental conditions within cannabis grow rooms. By monitoring and adjusting GPP levels, cultivators can optimize humidity levels for each growth stage, ensuring healthier plants and higher quality yields.

Dew Point

Dew point temperature is a precise measure that indicates the temperature at which air becomes fully saturated with water vapor and can no longer hold additional moisture, leading to condensation. This temperature is crucial for understanding how moist or dry the air is, independent of current air temperature. When the air temperature cools down to the dew point, water vapor condenses into liquid water, forming dew on surfaces or fog. The dew point is thus a direct indicator of moisture content in the air: the higher the dew point, the more moisture the air contains.

Dew point temperature is fundamentally about water vapor saturation in the air. It’s not just a static number but varies with the amount of moisture in the air. In a way, it’s a threshold temperature for condensation to occur. For instance, a dew point of 60°F (15.6°C) means condensation starts when the air temperature cools to 60°F. Importantly, the dew point cannot be higher than the air temperature; it is either equal to or lower than the air temperature.

The interaction between dew point temperature, air temperature, and humidity reveals much about atmospheric conditions. Air temperature measures how hot or cold the air is. At the same time, relative humidity is the percentage of moisture the air contains relative to the maximum it could hold at that temperature. As air temperature rises, its capacity to hold water vapor increases, often lowering the relative humidity if additional moisture isn’t added to the air.

The dew point plays a pivotal role in this relationship. A high dew point (closer to the actual air temperature) indicates high moisture content, resulting in higher relative humidity. Conversely, a low dew point indicates drier air, leading to lower relative humidity. In practical terms, if the air temperature significantly exceeds the dew point, the environment is generally dry; a narrow gap between air temperature and dew point signals a moist environment. For cannabis cultivation, understanding this relationship helps in creating optimal growing conditions. Keeping the air temperature and humidity within specific ranges relative to the dew point can prevent issues like mold or excessive plant transpiration.

Given the critical role dew point temperature plays in indicating atmospheric moisture content, it's essential for cannabis cultivators to understand how this value is calculated. This understanding aids in creating optimal growing conditions by managing air moisture levels effectively. To calculate the dew point, which signifies the temperature at which air reaches moisture saturation and begins to condense, we can use the Magnus formula. This approach provides a practical method to connect dew point calculations directly with the cultivation environment's needs. Here's a refined explanation of the calculation process:


Let’s apply these concepts with a straightforward example for clarity:

Imagine the air temperature is 25°C and the relative humidity is 60%. Plugging these values into the Magnus formula:

  1. Calculate α(T,RH) using the given temperature and humidity.
  2. Then, use the calculated α to determine Td​, the dew point temperature.

This calculation elucidates the temperature at which condensation starts, providing invaluable insight for managing the grow room environment. By monitoring and adjusting conditions to maintain an appropriate dew point distance from the current air temperature, cultivators can mitigate the risk of mold, optimize plant transpiration, and ensure a thriving environment for cannabis growth stages. Understanding and applying the dew point calculation allows for precise control over moisture conditions, crucial for fostering healthy plant development and maximizing yield.

Exploring the Temperature before Vapor Pressure Deficit

Before diving into the intricacies of vapor pressure deficit, it's indispensable to navigate the foundational elements of temperature, particularly through understanding dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures. This exploration lays the groundwork for further discussions on plant environments and highlights the critical role temperature plays in environmental monitoring and humidity control.


Understanding Dry Bulb Temperature

Understanding the importance of dry bulb temperature is essential for environmental surveillance. It is a fundamental metric. It serves as an essential measure. It establishes the basis for evaluating and controlling temperatures directly influencing plant well-being and development.

Definition and How It's Measured

Dry bulb temperature refers to the ambient air temperature measured by a regular thermometer without considering the moisture content in the air. Essentially, it is the measure of air temperature in an environment, unaffected by humidity. This temperature is crucial in determining the thermal comfort level in space and is the baseline for calculating other important environmental parameters, including vapor pressure deficit in cannabis grow rooms.

To accurately measure dry bulb temperature, a thermometer should be placed in a well-ventilated area away from direct sunlight or moisture sources to avoid skewed readings. The thermometer's bulb is exposed to the air, capturing the temperature without the influence of evaporation or radiation. Advanced environmental control systems often use digital sensors to continuously monitor dry bulb temperature, providing real-time data for precise climate control in cannabis cultivation facilities.

Importance in Environmental Monitoring

Dry bulb temperature plays several critical roles in environmental monitoring within a cannabis grow room:

  • Energy Management: It helps in optimizing heating and cooling systems to maintain the desired temperature range for cannabis plants, ensuring efficient energy use.
  • Plant Growth: Temperature affects photosynthesis rates, transpiration, and metabolic activities in cannabis plants. Maintaining an optimal dry bulb temperature promotes healthy growth and maximizes yield.
  • Disease Prevention: Proper temperature management can reduce the risk of diseases and pests, which thrive in overly warm or cool conditions.

Relationship between Dry Bulb Temperature and Relative Humidity

Dry bulb temperature measures air temperature independent of its moisture content. It's a straightforward representation of how hot or cold the air is in a given space. Relative humidity, however, measures the current amount of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount it can hold at that temperature, expressed as a percentage.

The capacity of air to hold moisture increases with temperature. Warmer air can contain more water vapor before reaching saturation, which means for a constant amount of moisture in the air, the relative humidity decreases as the dry bulb temperature rises. Conversely, if the dry bulb temperature decreases without a change in the moisture content, the relative humidity increases because the air is closer to its saturation point.

For example, during the day, as the dry bulb temperature in the grow room increases (due to lighting or external temperatures), the RH naturally decreases if additional moisture is not introduced into the air. When temperatures typically drop, RH can increase at night, potentially creating conditions conducive to fungal growth if not properly managed.

Insights into Wet Bulb Temperature

Exploring wet bulb temperature unveils its critical function in humidity control and plant transpiration management. This measurement offers a lens through which we can better understand the dynamics of evaporative cooling and its implications for maintaining optimal growing conditions.

Explanation and Measurement Method

Wet bulb temperature (WBT) is a measure of the air temperature taken with a thermometer that has its bulb wrapped in a wet cloth and is then exposed to air movement. The WBT is always equal to or lower than the dry bulb temperature, except when the air is 100% saturated with moisture, in which case they are the same. This temperature reflects the lowest temperature that can be achieved by evaporative cooling under current environmental conditions.

Measuring the wet bulb temperature involves a thermometer covering the bulb with a water-soaked cloth (wet bulb). The thermometer is then ventilated by swinging it in the air or using a fan to blow air over the bulb. As the water evaporates from the cloth, it absorbs heat from the thermometer, causing the temperature reading to drop. The rate of evaporation, and thus the temperature drop, is influenced by the current humidity level; dry air results in more cooling, while humid air results in less.

The Relationship Between Wet Bulb Temperature and Relative Humidity

Wet bulb temperature and relative humidity are directly linked because the wet bulb temperature is a physical measure of cooling resulting from evaporation. The cooler the wet bulb temperature compared to the dry bulb temperature, the lower the relative humidity, indicating drier air. Conversely, when the wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures are closer, it suggests higher relative humidity, indicating moister air.

Relative humidity (RH) measures the current air moisture content relative to the maximum it could hold at that temperature. The closer the air is to its moisture-holding capacity, the higher the relative humidity. Since the wet bulb temperature involves cooling through evaporation, and evaporation rates are affected by the moisture content in the air, the wet bulb temperature provides indirect insights into the air's relative humidity.

The exact relationship between wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, and relative humidity can be quantified using various psychrometric formulas or determined from a psychrometric chart. One of the simpler formulas to estimate relative humidity from wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures is as follows:



  • RH is the relative humidity
  • Tdb​ is the dry bulb temperature (°C)
  • Twb​ is the wet bulb temperature (°C)

This formula provides an approximation and is most accurate in a normal temperature range, where the difference between the dry and wet bulb temperatures is not too large. Using a detailed psychrometric chart or advanced calculators is recommended for precise calculations, especially in critical applications like greenhouse management or specific industrial processes. These tools consider various factors and provide more accurate measurements of relative humidity, based on the principles of thermodynamics.

Delving into dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures provides invaluable insights for managing vapor pressure deficit effectively. This foundational knowledge is instrumental in optimizing the conditions necessary for plant health and productivity, underscoring the significance of precise environmental control in agricultural practices.

What is Vapor Pressure Deficit

Vapor pressure deficit stands as a critical metric in the cultivation of cannabis within controlled environments, encapsulating the difference between the actual amount of water vapor in the air and the maximum it could hold at a given temperature. This concept not only underscores the atmospheric demand for moisture from plants but also intricately ties to key physiological processes such as stomatal opening, CO2 uptake, transpiration, nutrient absorption, and the overall stress management in plants.

Definition of Vapor Pressure Deficit

Vapor Pressure Deficit is a crucial concept that bridges the gap between atmospheric conditions and plant physiology, offering insight into how air moisture, or the lack thereof, influences plant behavior and growth. Vapor pressure deficit quantifies the difference between the actual amount of moisture in the air and the maximum amount the air could hold when fully saturated, at a specific temperature. This measurement is pivotal for growers to understand as it directly affects plant transpiration—the process by which plants release water vapor from their leaves into the atmosphere.

High Vapor Pressure Deficit

When vapor pressure deficit is high, it signals that the air is dry; the actual vapor pressure is significantly lower than the saturated vapor pressure. This condition indicates that the air is more capable of holding water vapor. Inside the plant, the vapor pressure is relatively higher because of water transpiring through the plant’s processes. Due to this pressure gradient, water vapor moves from areas of higher pressure (inside the plant) to lower pressure (the surrounding air).

Consequently, plants tend to lose water more rapidly through transpiration in high vapor pressure deficit conditions. The stomata, or pores on the underside of the leaves, remain open to allow for gas exchange (taking in CO2 and releasing O2), and in doing so, more water vapor escapes.

Low Vapor Pressure Deficit

Conversely, when vapor pressure deficit is low, the air is more saturated with moisture, closer to its maximum holding capacity. In these conditions, the difference in vapor pressure inside and outside the plant is minimal. This reduced gradient slows down the process of transpiration because the air around the plant cannot accept more water vapor as readily. It's akin to trying to add more water to a nearly full glass; it can only accept so much before it overflows.

The slowing down of transpiration in low vapor pressure deficit conditions is also a protective mechanism for the plant. With a minimal water vapor gradient between the plant and the surrounding air, plants reduce water loss by partially closing their stomata. While this reduces water loss, it also limits the intake of CO2, which is necessary for photosynthesis, and can affect the plant's growth if sustained over time.

Furthermore, with the stomata not opening as widely, there's reduced uptake of water and nutrients from the roots since the plant is not losing water through transpiration at a high rate. This balance ensures the plant maintains adequate hydration without quickly depleting its internal water reserves.

Calculating Vapor Pressure Deficit

Calculating Vapor Pressure Deficit is good for understanding the drying power of the air around plants and how it influences plant transpiration. Vapor pressure deficit is measured by understanding the difference between the moisture content the air currently holds and how much it can potentially hold at a given temperature. Here’s a step-by-step guide to calculate vapor pressure deficit, including the required formulas:

Step 1: Measure Leaf Temperature (Tleaf)

To calculate the Saturated Vapor Pressure (VPsat) at the leaf surface, you first need the leaf temperature. This can be measured accurately using an infrared temperature gun. Leaf temperature is critical as it reflects the temperature at which the plant is potentially losing water to the surrounding air.

Step 2: Calculate Saturated Vapor Pressure (VPsat)

The formula for calculating VPsat, based on leaf temperature in Celsius (T), is:


This formula gives VPsat in kilopascals (kPa), showing the maximum vapor pressure at the leaf's temperature, where e is the base of the natural logarithm (approximately 2.71828).

Step 3: Measure Air Temperature and Relative Humidity

Next, you need to know the air temperature and relative humidity in the growing environment. This can be done using a combined thermometer/hygrometer placed away from direct sunlight and plant canopy to avoid skewed readings.

Step 4: Calculate Vapor Pressure of the Air (VPair)

With the air temperature (Tair in Celsius) and relative humidity (RH), you can calculate the actual vapor pressure of the air (VPair) using the formula:


This calculation will also provide VPair in kilopascals (kPa), representing the air's current moisture content.

Step 5: Calculate Vapor Pressure Deficit

Finally, to find vapor pressure deficit, you subtract the Vapor Pressure of the Air (VPair) from the Saturated Vapor Pressure (VPsat):

vapor pressure deficit=VPsat​−VPair​

This result, expressed in kilopascals (kPa), indicates the vapor pressure deficit. A higher vapor pressure deficit suggests dry air, encouraging plants to transpire more water vapor, while a lower vapor pressure deficit indicates humid conditions, potentially slowing transpiration.

Vapor Pressure Deficit Chart

To interpret the provided Vapor Pressure Deficit chart, you would follow these steps:

  1. Finding the Air Temperature: Look at the temperature readings on the left side of the chart, where you will usually find two scales: one in Celsius (°C) and another in Fahrenheit (°F). Using a reliable thermometer, identify the current temperature in your grow room and find the corresponding row on the chart.
  2. Identifying the Relative Humidity (RH): At the top of the chart, there will be a row indicating various percentages representing RH, which measures the amount of moisture in the air as a percentage of the maximum moisture that air can hold at that particular temperature.
  3. Using a hygrometer, determine the RH percentage in your grow room and find the corresponding column on the chart.
  4. Locating the vapor pressure deficit Value: Trace down from the temperature row and across from the RH column until you find the point where they intersect.
  5. The intersecting cell gives you the vapor pressure deficit value for your current grow room conditions, measured in kilopascals (kPa). This vapor pressure deficit value represents the differential between the existing water vapor in the air and the amount needed for the air to be at full saturation.
  6. Assessing vapor pressure deficit Recommendations: The chart might have shaded areas or recommended ranges that are considered optimal for different stages of cannabis growth. Compare your vapor pressure deficit value with these ranges to determine if your grow room air is too dry or too moist.
  7. Making Environmental Adjustments: You must adjust your grow room conditions if your vapor pressure deficit value is outside the optimal range. For a vapor pressure deficit higher than desired, implying dry air, you could increase humidity by using a humidifier or reducing the grow room temperature. Conversely, if the vapor pressure deficit is lower than the optimal range, suggesting moist air, you would need to reduce humidity, possibly through dehumidification or by increasing the temperature.

Suppose your grow room has a temperature of 24°C (75°F) and the RH is 50%. Upon finding these values on the vapor pressure deficit chart, you see they intersect at a vapor pressure deficit of 1.49kPa. The ideal vapor pressure deficit range for vegetative cannabis plants is around 0.8-1.2 kPa. Since 1.49 kPa is above this range, the air is too dry. To optimize conditions for your plants, you would need to raise the humidity in the grow room. This could be done by introducing a humidifier or by slightly reducing the temperature, which could increase the RH and thus lower the vapor pressure deficit closer to the ideal range.


Key Factors of Vapor Pressure Deficit Affecting Plants

Vapor pressure deficit plays a crucial role in the physiological processes of cannabis plants, influencing everything from stomatal opening to nutrient uptake. Understanding how vapor pressure deficit affects these processes can help optimize growth conditions and enhance plant health and productivity.


Stomata Opening

Stomata are tiny openings on the leaves of cannabis plants that regulate gas exchange and water vapor release. The level of vapor pressure deficit influences stomatal behavior significantly. In conditions of high vapor pressure deficit, when the air is dry, stomata may open wider to facilitate more carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption for photosynthesis.

However, this also increases water vapor loss from the plant to the air. Conversely, low vapor pressure deficit indicates more humid conditions, leading to partial closure of stomata to conserve water. While this reduces water loss, it also limits CO2 intake, which can slow down photosynthesis and plant growth.

CO2 Uptake

CO2 absorption is closely tied to the opening of stomata. Cannabis plants need CO2 for photosynthesis, which converts light, water, and CO2 into oxygen and glucose. High vapor pressure deficit conditions can increase stomatal opening, potentially increasing CO2 absorption.

However, the increased water vapor loss must be managed to prevent plant dehydration. Maintaining an optimal vapor pressure deficit ensures that stomata open sufficiently to absorb CO2 without excessive water loss, effectively balancing photosynthesis and transpiration.


Transpiration, the process of water vapor loss from plant leaves through stomata, is directly influenced by vapor pressure deficit. High vapor pressure deficit conditions create a greater demand for moisture in the air, leading to increased transpiration rates. While this can help pull more nutrients from the soil through the plant's vascular system, it also risks dehydrating the plant if not properly managed.

Optimal vapor pressure deficit levels help maintain vigorous transpiration rates that support nutrient uptake without overburdening the plant's water reserves.

Nutrient Intake at the Roots

The rate of nutrient intake at the cannabis plant's roots is indirectly affected by vapor pressure deficit through its influence on transpiration. As water is drawn from the roots to replace what is lost through transpiration, nutrients dissolved in the water are also transported throughout the plant. High vapor pressure deficit increases transpiration, potentially enhancing nutrient uptake. However, if the plant loses water too quickly due to excessively high vapor pressure deficit, it may not absorb nutrients efficiently, leading to nutrient deficiencies and impaired growth.

Plant Stress

The level of vapor pressure deficit can cause stress to cannabis plants if not maintained within an optimal range. High vapor pressure deficit levels can lead to excessive water loss, stressing the plant as it struggles to maintain hydration. If severe and prolonged, this can result in wilting, reduced growth rates, and even death.

On the other hand, too low vapor pressure deficit reduces transpiration pressure, which can lead to waterlogging and nutrient uptake problems, stressing the plant in different ways. Proper management of vapor pressure deficit minimizes stress, ensuring the plant can grow healthily and produce high yields.

Vapor pressure deficit is a critical environmental parameter that influences the physiological processes of cannabis plants, affecting their growth, health, and productivity. By understanding and controlling vapor pressure deficit, growers can optimize the conditions under which cannabis plants thrive, enhancing stomatal function, CO2 absorption, transpiration rates, nutrient uptake, and reducing plant stress.

Influencing Factors of Vapor Pressure Deficit

Understanding the factors that influence vapor pressure deficit is essential for creating an optimal growing environment for cannabis plants. Temperature, humidity, and light intensity are key environmental parameters that directly impact vapor pressure deficit, each affecting plant transpiration and overall health in distinct ways.


In a cannabis grow room, as temperatures rise, the air's ability to hold water vapor increases. This does not automatically mean the air becomes more humid; it can hold more moisture before reaching saturation. If the actual humidity (the current amount of water vapor in the air) does not increase proportionally to the temperature, then the vapor pressure deficit will increase. This higher vapor pressure deficit occurs because the air, although warmer and capable of holding more moisture, remains relatively dry compared to its potential at that temperature.

For cannabis plants, a high vapor pressure deficit signals that the air around them is thirsty and will pull moisture more aggressively through transpiration. While this can promote nutrient uptake via increased water movement through the plant, it also risks dehydrating the plants if not carefully managed.

Conversely, the air's capacity to hold water vapor decreases when temperatures drop in the grow room. This condition can lead to a lower vapor pressure deficit, as the air can become more quickly saturated with the existing moisture.

For cannabis cultivation, low vapor pressure deficit indicates that the air is closer to saturation, reducing the driving force for transpiration. While this may reduce water stress on the plants, it can also slow the transport of nutrients to the plant and potentially lead to issues like mold or mildew if the humidity is too high.



Humidity, or the air's moisture, directly affects vapor pressure deficit. High humidity levels mean the air is closer to its maximum water vapor capacity, reducing the vapor pressure deficit. In such environments, plants may transpire less because the air cannot absorb much more moisture, potentially leading to reduced nutrient uptake and slowed growth.

On the other hand, low humidity increases the vapor pressure deficit, as the dry air can absorb more moisture. This condition can enhance transpiration and nutrient delivery but also risks dehydrating the plant if not carefully managed. Maintaining optimal humidity levels is key to controlling vapor pressure deficit, ensuring that plants remain hydrated and healthy while optimizing nutrient uptake through transpiration.

Light Intensity

Light intensity indirectly affects vapor pressure deficit through its influence on plant transpiration and temperature. High light intensity increases photosynthesis, leading to more stomatal openings for CO2 uptake, which can increase transpiration rates. High light intensity can also raise leaf and air temperatures, potentially increasing vapor pressure deficit by enhancing the air's capacity to hold moisture.

Conversely, lower light intensities can reduce transpiration rates and lower temperatures, potentially decreasing vapor pressure deficit. Managing light intensity is crucial for controlling transpiration and vapor pressure deficit, ensuring plants have sufficient light for photosynthesis without excessively increasing water loss or stressing the plants.

Factors such as temperature, humidity, and light intensity play pivotal roles in influencing vapor pressure deficit, affecting everything from gas exchange at the stomatal level to the plant's ability to absorb nutrients and cope with environmental stress. Effective control of these factors, therefore, enables growers to create an ideal environment that promotes vigorous, healthy cannabis plants.

Stable Vapor Pressure Deficit Ensures Optimal Growth of Cannabis at Every Stage

For optimal cannabis cultivation, growers need to understand and apply the right vapor pressure deficit at each growth stage. Vapor pressure deficit, by influencing transpiration rates, plays an important role in plant health, nutrient uptake, and overall growth efficiency. Below, we delve into the optimal vapor pressure deficit ranges for various cannabis growth stages and the benefits of maintaining these specific ranges.

Seedling Stage

Optimal Vapor Pressure Deficit Range: For cannabis seedlings, maintaining a vapor pressure deficit between 0.8 to 1.0 kilopascals (kPa) is ideal.

The roots are not fully developed at this early stage, and the plant's ability to uptake water is limited. A lower vapor pressure deficit range ensures that the air around the seedlings is humid enough to reduce the necessity for water uptake through the roots, thereby preventing dehydration. This humidity level also supports gentle transpiration, encouraging healthy root growth and establishing a strong foundation for the plant.

Vegetative Stage

Optimal Vapor Pressure Deficit Range: During the vegetative stage, a slightly higher vapor pressure deficit range of 0.8 to 1.2 kPa is beneficial.

This stage of growth is characterized by rapid leaf and stem development. The specified vapor pressure deficit range promotes more vigorous transpiration, driving water uptake and nutrients essential for growth. Adequate transpiration is crucial for nutrient transport from the roots to the leaves and stems where growth is most active. This vapor pressure deficit range also helps regulate the plant's internal water balance, ensuring the cannabis plants develop strong vascular systems and robust foliage, setting the stage for healthy flowering.

Flowering Stage

Optimal Vapor Pressure Deficit Range: In the flowering stage, it is recommended to maintain a vapor pressure deficit between 1.2 and 1.6 kPa.

As cannabis plants start developing buds, they require a careful balance of moisture and dryness to optimize bud growth without inviting mold or pests. The higher vapor pressure deficit range during flowering encourages the plant to transpire more actively, increasing nutrient uptake and enhancing the buds' growth and potency. Additionally, this optimal vapor pressure deficit range helps avoid excessively humid conditions around the dense foliage and buds, reducing the risk of mold and fungal diseases, common problems during the flowering stage.

Late Flowering Stage

Optimal Vapor Pressure Deficit Range: Similar to the early flowering phase, the vapor pressure deficit range during the late flowering stage should remain between 1.2 and 1.6 kPa.

Maintaining this vapor pressure deficit range in the late flowering stage ensures that the buds continue to mature under optimal conditions. It helps in finalizing the development of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other valuable compounds in the cannabis buds. A controlled vapor pressure deficit at this stage prevents bud rot. It maintains the structural integrity of the trichomes, ensuring that the plants reach their full potential in terms of yield and quality by the time of harvest.

By adhering to these optimal vapor pressure deficit ranges throughout the cannabis lifecycle, cultivators can significantly influence their plants' health, growth rate, and yield. Proper vapor pressure deficit management ensures that cannabis plants transpire effectively, facilitating robust growth during the vegetative stage, optimal bud development during flowering, and preservation of quality leading up to harvest.

How to Optimize Vapor Pressure Deficit

Optimizing Vapor Pressure Deficit enhances the growth and health of cannabis plants. By carefully regulating temperature, adjusting humidity, and controlling both temperature and humidity simultaneously, cultivators can create an ideal environment that encourages robust plant development.

Regulating Temperature

Optimizing Vapor Pressure Deficit by adjusting temperature alone is a nuanced strategy that hinges on understanding how temperature affects air's moisture capacity. This method, while feasible, must be approached with caution due to several inherent considerations and potential risks.

The principle behind using temperature adjustments to influence vapor pressure deficit lies in the relationship between air temperature and its capacity to hold moisture. Increasing the temperature in a grow room can help decrease vapor pressure deficit in overly moist conditions by expanding the air's capacity to hold more water vapor, potentially bringing the vapor pressure deficit into an optimal range without altering the actual moisture content. Conversely, reducing the temperature in a dry environment (where vapor pressure deficit is high) can beneficially increase relative humidity by lowering the air's capacity to hold moisture, thus reducing vapor pressure deficit and creating conditions more conducive to plant transpiration.

While this approach offers a way to fine-tune the grow environment towards the ideal vapor pressure deficit range, it comes with several risks. Overheating or overcooling the environment in an attempt to adjust vapor pressure deficit might stress plants, leading to issues like heat stress or inhibited growth. This method could also result in increased energy consumption, particularly in larger cultivation operations, as significant temperature alterations require more energy. Moreover, adjusting temperature affects the air's moisture-holding capacity but doesn't actually remove or add moisture to the environment, which might not adequately address vapor pressure deficit issues in extreme humidity conditions. There's also the risk of inadvertently creating conditions that favor pests and diseases; for instance, overly warm environments can promote the growth of certain fungi.

Adjusting temperature to control vapor pressure deficit can be effective but should be executed with precision and awareness of the potential challenges. Monitoring plant responses and being ready to incorporate humidity control measures if necessary are crucial steps in employing this strategy.

Adjusting Humidity

Optimizing Vapor Pressure Deficit by adjusting humidity alone involves directly altering the water vapor content in the air without changing the temperature, targeting a crucial component for vapor pressure deficit calculation. The essence of this approach is to modify the actual vapor pressure in the growing environment, which can influence vapor pressure deficit and consequently affect plant transpiration rates. When the vapor pressure deficit is too high, suggesting that the air is too dry for optimal plant health, increasing the room's humidity by introducing more moisture into the air can help. This action effectively reduces vapor pressure deficit, bringing it closer to an ideal range that promotes healthy plant growth without stressing the plants excessively. Conversely, in situations where vapor pressure deficit is too low, indicating that the air might be too humid and could potentially hamper plant transpiration or encourage mold growth, reducing humidity by extracting moisture from the air can raise the vapor pressure deficit to a more desirable level.

While the feasibility of adjusting humidity to optimize vapor pressure deficit is clear, especially with humidifiers to add moisture or dehumidifiers to remove it, this strategy has challenges and risks. It provides a solution that mainly addresses one variable in the vapor pressure deficit equation, which may not be sufficient in environments experiencing significant temperature fluctuations. Over-humidification can lead to excessively high humidity levels, creating an environment prone to mold, mildew, and other fungal diseases. On the other hand, excessive dehumidification can result in overly dry conditions that may stress the plants and increase their water demands. Additionally, managing humidity, particularly in large or poorly insulated spaces, can be energy-intensive and costly, posing a significant consideration for cultivators.

Achieving optimal vapor pressure deficit through humidity adjustments alone is a nuanced task requiring monitoring the grow room's environmental conditions. While it's a viable method, it works best when complemented by temperature adjustments to ensure a comprehensive approach to managing vapor pressure deficit. Careful management is essential to avoid over or under-humidification, ensuring that the cultivation environment remains conducive to healthy plant growth and maximizes yield potential.

Controlling temperature and humidity simultaneously

The approach of simultaneously controlling temperature and humidity to optimize Vapor Pressure Deficit is founded on the interdependent relationship between these two factors and their collective impact on vapor pressure deficit. This strategy is critical in cultivating environments like cannabis grow rooms, where precise environmental control directly influences plant health and productivity.

Temperature and humidity are intrinsically linked; altering one can inadvertently impact the other. For instance, increasing the temperature raises the air's capacity to hold moisture, potentially decreasing vapor pressure deficit when the air is already moist. This can be advantageous if the initial vapor pressure deficit is too high, indicating overly dry air that risks dehydrating the plants. Conversely, reducing temperature lowers the air's moisture-holding capacity, increasing vapor pressure deficit in overly humid conditions, preventing mold growth, and promoting healthier transpiration rates.

Similarly, adjusting humidity levels directly impacts vapor pressure deficit. Increasing humidity when the air is too dry can lower vapor pressure deficit to a more desirable level, facilitating better water uptake by plants. Decreasing humidity in overly moist conditions raises vapor pressure deficit, encouraging optimal transpiration and nutrient absorption.

The simultaneous adjustment of both temperature and humidity offers a refined control method over vapor pressure deficit. The benefits of this method are significant and multifaceted. By maintaining the vapor pressure deficit within an optimal range, cannabis plants can achieve more efficient transpiration, leading to improved nutrient uptake and overall growth. This optimal vapor pressure deficit management also helps prevent conditions conducive to mold and fungal diseases, thus fostering healthier plant populations. Optimizing vapor pressure deficit enhances water use efficiency, reducing unnecessary water loss and ensuring plants maintain adequate moisture levels. Ultimately, this contributes to higher yield quality, characterized by denser flowers, richer terpene profiles, and enhanced cannabinoid content, thereby maximizing the potential of the cannabis crop.

In conclusion, the simultaneous adjustment of temperature and humidity for vapor pressure deficit optimization offers a nuanced and effective strategy for environmental control in cannabis cultivation. It transcends simpler, single-variable adjustments by addressing the complex dynamics between air temperature, moisture, and plant transpiration needs. With the appropriate tools and a deep understanding of these interactions, growers can establish an ideal environment that promotes vigorous plant growth, ensuring high yield and quality.

Achieving the optimal vapor pressure deficit through the meticulous management of temperature and humidity significantly impacts cannabis cultivation success. This balanced approach ensures plants thrive, improving health, efficiency, and yield quality in the grow room environment.

Achieving Consistent Humidity and Temperature by Grow Room Hvac System

Temperature and humidity are the primary drivers determining the vapor pressure deficit within a grow room. Having established the pivotal relationship between temperature, humidity, and vapor pressure deficit in determining the health and productivity of cannabis plants, the next critical question for growers is how to effectively control these environmental variables to achieve the optimal vapor pressure deficit range. This leads us to explore the role of grow room HVAC systems in achieving consistent humidity and temperature levels.

The Essential Role of HVAC in Grow Room Climate Control

The integrated HVAC system in a cannabis grow room plays a foundational role in climate control, harmonizing temperature, humidity, and air quality to foster an environment conducive to plant health and productivity. Its design and operation are tailored to address the unique needs of a controlled cultivation space, ensuring that all aspects of the grow room's climate are precisely managed.

  • Temperature Management: Integrated HVAC systems provide seamless control over the grow room's temperature. By efficiently heating or cooling the space, these systems ensure that temperatures stay within the narrow range that cannabis plants require to thrive. This precise temperature control is pivotal for metabolic processes in the plant, influencing everything from photosynthesis to flowering.
  • Humidity Regulation: An essential aspect of climate control is managing the humidity levels within the grow room. Integrated HVAC systems are equipped with dehumidifying capabilities to extract excess moisture from the air, as well as humidifiers as an option function to add moisture when the air is too dry. This balance maintains an ideal vapor pressure deficit, thereby optimizing the plant's transpiration rate and ensuring effective nutrient and water uptake.
  • Ventilation and Air Circulation: Beyond temperature and humidity, integrated HVAC systems are responsible for ventilating the grow room and promoting consistent air circulation. This ensures that fresh, CO2-rich air is continuously supplied, while stale air and potential pollutants are removed. Uniform air circulation prevents microclimates within the grow space, ensuring each plant receives equal access to the optimal growing conditions.
  • Air Quality Control: These systems also filter the incoming air, removing dust, pathogens, and other airborne contaminants that could harm the plants. Clean air is beneficial for preventing disease and pest infestations, contributing to the overall health and resilience of the cannabis crop.

Integrated HVAC systems represent a significant advancement in grow room climate control technology. By combining temperature regulation, humidity management, ventilation, and air filtration into a single, cohesive system, they eliminate the inefficiencies and inconsistencies often found with using separate units for each function. This integration ensures that growers can maintain the precise environmental conditions needed for each stage of cannabis growth, from seedling to harvest, thereby maximizing yield and quality.

Comparing HVAC Solutions: Traditional vs. Latest Technologies

In the specialized cannabis cultivation environment, achieving precise climate control is paramount for plant health and yield optimization. While traditional air conditioning and dehumidifiers have been mainstays in regulating grow room environments, they present notable limitations that can hinder the achievement of ideal growing conditions. On the other hand, integrated HVAC technologies emerge as a superior solution, offering numerous advantages that address the shortcomings of conventional systems.

Limitations of Conventional Air Conditioning and Dehumidifiers

Navigating through the complexities of grow room climate control, cultivators encounter the challenge of selecting the most efficient system. The limitations of traditional air conditioning and dehumidifiers become evident as we delve into their impact on cannabis cultivation.

  • Holistic Climate Management: Integrated HVAC systems are designed to provide comprehensive control over the grow room climate, simultaneously managing temperature, humidity, and air quality. This integration allows for more precise control over vapor pressure deficit, ensuring that cannabis plants can transpire efficiently and access the CO2 and nutrients they need for optimal growth.
  • Energy Efficiency: By combining heating, cooling, and dehumidification into a single, intelligently controlled unit, integrated HVAC systems operate more efficiently than separate devices. This efficiency translates to lower energy consumption and cost savings for growers.
  • Simplified Operations: An integrated HVAC solution simplifies the grow room setup by consolidating climate control into one system. This simplicity makes it easier for growers to monitor and adjust environmental conditions, leading to more stable vapor pressure deficit levels and less manual intervention.
  • Proactive Environment Adjustment: Advanced integrated HVAC systems can proactively maintain ideal climate conditions using sensors and smart controls. This proactive approach prevents the environment from deviating from the optimal range, supporting consistent plant growth and development.
  • Adaptability and Scalability: Integrated HVAC technologies are designed with the flexibility to adapt to different grow room sizes and configurations. They can be scaled up or down based on the specific needs of the cultivation operation, providing a tailored solution that conventional systems cannot match.

Advantages of Integrated Grow Room HVAC Systems

Integrated HVAC technologies offer a suite of advantages that revolutionize climate control in cannabis cultivation. One of the standout benefits of integrated HVAC systems is their energy efficiency. By merging heating, cooling, and dehumidification functions into a single unit under intelligent control, they outperform separate devices in energy consumption, leading to significant cost savings for growers. This efficiency does not compromise the system's effectiveness, making it an economically sound choice for the long term.

The operational simplicity provided by an integrated HVAC system streamlines the management of grow room environments. With climate control centralized through one system, growers find it easier to keep an eye on and adjust conditions as needed, maintaining stable climate condition levels with minimal manual intervention. Furthermore, the use of advanced sensors and smart controls in these systems enables proactive maintenance of ideal climate conditions, averting any deviation from the optimal environment necessary for consistent plant growth.

Lastly, the adaptability and scalability of integrated HVAC technologies stand out. Designed to accommodate various grow room sizes and setups, these systems can be adjusted to meet the unique demands of each cultivation operation. This flexibility offers a customized climate control solution, showcasing an edge over conventional systems that lack the same level of adaptability.

The meticulous management of vapor pressure deficit is a cornerstone of successful cannabis cultivation, ensuring plants thrive by facilitating optimal transpiration and nutrient uptake. Altaqua's Grow Room HVAC System, with its innovative approach to climate control, significantly enhances the ability to maintain ideal vapor pressure deficit levels, chiefly through the application of Dew Point Control and the system's inherent redundancy and scalability.

Altaqua's Grow Room HVAC System redefines climate control in cannabis cultivation by employing Dew Point Control instead of relying solely on Relative Humidity measurements. Relative humidity, being highly susceptible to temperature variations, can lead to inconsistent assessments of moisture levels in the air, thus impacting the vapor pressure deficit inaccurately. The dew point, however, remains constant across temperature changes, providing a more dependable metric for moisture content. By ensuring a stable and accurate representation of moisture conditions, Dew Point Control allows cultivators to maintain the vapor pressure deficit within an optimal range consistently. This stability can ensure cannabis plants to transpire effectively, enhancing their ability to absorb CO2 and nutrients necessary for robust growth.

The design of Altaqua's Grow Room HVAC System incorporates redundancy and scalability, ensuring that temperature and humidity—and by extension, vapor pressure deficit—remain stable, even in the face of potential system challenges. Including one to four independent, multi-stage circuits within a single system means that if one circuit encounters issues, others can compensate, maintaining the system's overall performance. This redundancy is crucial for preventing fluctuations in temperature and humidity that could adversely affect vapor pressure deficit levels.

In conclusion, while traditional air conditioning and dehumidifiers have served growers in the past, their limitations in precision, efficiency, and simplicity make them less suited for the nuanced demands of cannabis cultivation. Integrated HVAC technologies offer a forward-looking solution, addressing these challenges with advanced controls and efficiency, enabling growers to achieve and maintain the ideal climate for maximizing cannabis plant health and yield.


How to Choose the Right Model of Grow Room HVAC System to Create the Best Vapor Pressure Deficit

Choosing the right model of a grow room HVAC system can maintain the best vapor pressure deficit conducive to cannabis cultivation. The decision-making process involves considering various factors like temperature and humidity setpoints, the type and quantity of lights, watering methods and plant quantity, and run-off rates. Let’s explore how each factor influences the selection of an HVAC system to create the optimal vapor pressure deficit.

Temperature and Humidity Setpoints

Understanding the specific temperature and humidity requirements of your cannabis plants at different growth stages is the first step. These setpoints are foundational for determining the optimal vapor pressure deficit. An effective HVAC system should offer precise control over these parameters, allowing for adjustments as plants mature. Systems with programmable controls enable growers to set schedules that automatically adjust temperature and humidity levels, ensuring the environment consistently meets the ideal conditions for maintaining an optimal vapor pressure deficit.

Type and Quantity of Lights

The type of lighting and its intensity significantly impact the heat within the grow room, directly affecting the temperature and, consequently, the vapor pressure deficit. Calculate the total wattage of all your lights to understand the heat load they introduce. For instance, high-intensity discharge (HID) lights produce more heat than LEDs. Knowing the total wattage helps select an HVAC system with enough cooling capacity to offset the heat generated by the lights, maintaining the temperature within the desired range for an optimal vapor pressure deficit.

Type of Watering and Quantity of Plants

The water used for irrigation and the number of plants in the grow room influence the humidity level. More plants and frequent watering can increase humidity, affecting vapor pressure deficit. Choose an HVAC system that can effectively manage the moisture added to the air through evapotranspiration from plants, ensuring that humidity remains within the target range for maintaining optimal vapor pressure deficit. This may involve systems with integrated dehumidifiers or those capable of enhanced moisture control.

Run-off Rates

Run-off, which drains away after watering, can also impact humidity levels in the grow room. An HVAC system accommodating the variability in moisture levels due to run-off will be more effective in maintaining stable humidity and temperature conditions, thereby ensuring a consistent vapor pressure deficit. Consider systems that offer responsive humidity control, capable of adjusting to sudden changes in moisture levels within the room.

Selecting the right HVAC system for your grow room requires a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between temperature, humidity, lighting, watering practices, and run-off rates. The goal is to create a controlled environment where the vapor pressure deficit is optimized for cannabis growth.


Our journey through understanding and managing vapor pressure deficit in cannabis cultivation underscores the intricate balance between temperature, humidity, and other key factors. Recognizing the impact of environmental conditions on vapor pressure deficit allows for better control over plant transpiration and growth. The role of HVAC systems in achieving consistent humidity and temperature, alongside the considerations for lighting, watering practices, and runoff rates, highlights the multifaceted approach needed for optimal cannabis growth.

By meticulously selecting an HVAC system tailored to the unique demands of a grow room, cultivators can maintain the desired vapor pressure deficit, fostering healthier plants and maximizing yields. Ultimately, mastering vapor pressure deficit management through informed decisions and precise environmental control is a critical step towards ensuring the success and sustainability of cannabis cultivation.


1. What is the difference between Vapor Pressure and Vapor Pressure Deficit?

Vapor Pressure is the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases at a given temperature in a closed system. It represents how much moisture the air currently holds. On the other hand, Vapor Pressure Deficit (vapor pressure deficit) measures the difference between the amount of moisture the air currently contains and how much it can hold when it's fully saturated at a given temperature.

2. What is the formula for Vapor Pressure Deficit?

The formula for calculating vapor pressure deficit is: Vapor Pressure Deficit = (Saturation Vapor Pressure) - (Actual Vapor Pressure). Saturation Vapor Pressure can be determined using temperature-dependent equations like the Tetens formula, and Actual Vapor Pressure is calculated based on current air temperature and relative humidity. These calculations help determine the vapor pressure deficit in units of pressure, typically kilopascals (kPa).

3. What is the difference between relative humidity and Vapor Pressure Deficit?

Relative Humidity (RH) is a measure of the current amount of moisture in the air relative to the maximum it can hold at a particular temperature, expressed as a percentage. It gives an immediate sense of how humid the air feels. Vapor Pressure Deficit, however, quantifies the difference between the moisture currently in the air and the maximum it can hold, focusing on the air's capacity to absorb more moisture. While RH gives a snapshot of moisture content, vapor pressure deficit provides insight into the drying power of the air and its effect on plant transpiration.

4. What is the Ideal Vapor Pressure Deficit for Cannabis Grow Room?

The ideal vapor pressure deficit for a cannabis grow room varies with the plant's growth stage. During the seedling stage, a lower vapor pressure deficit of around 0.8-1.0 kPa is preferred to support gentle transpiration and encourage healthy root growth. For the vegetative stage, a slightly higher vapor pressure deficit of 0.8-1.2 kPa promotes more vigorous growth. In the flowering stage, maintaining a vapor pressure deficit between 1.2-1.6 kPa helps optimize bud development and reduce the risk of mold and diseases.

5. How to Raise and Lower Vapor Pressure Deficit?

To raise vapor pressure deficit, you can either increase the temperature or decrease the humidity in your grow room. Increasing temperature allows the air to hold more moisture, thus raising the vapor pressure deficit. Using dehumidifiers can lower the actual moisture content in the air, also increasing vapor pressure deficit. Conversely, to lower vapor pressure deficit, you can reduce the temperature or increase humidity. Cooling the air reduces its capacity to hold moisture, lowering vapor pressure deficit, while using humidifiers increases the air's moisture content, also lowering vapor pressure deficit. Managing these factors helps maintain an optimal vapor pressure deficit for plant health and productivity.

Share with your friends:

Popular Blogs on Altaqua:

Get HVAC Brochure?

Get HVAC Brochure

Get HVAC Brochure?

Altaqua Form 1