Spatial Layout Design
The first step in space planning is designing the spatial layout. This involves determining the optimal placement of plants, equipment, and walkways.
It is important to have enough space between plants to allow for proper air circulation and prevent overcrowding, which can lead to disease and pest infestations.
Create an Interior Structure
Many growers build a structure within a structure to further optimize space and prevent contamination. This involves creating a separate area within the grow room for potting, cloning, and trimming tasks. This helps with organization and prevents the spread of pests and diseases from one place to another.
Ensure Adequate Structural Support
When designing the grow room, it is essential to consider what the structure needs to support. This includes the plants and equipment and the weight of the growing medium, water, and other materials. The structure must be able to support this weight without collapsing or causing damage to the plants.
Consider the Lateral Movement of Your Structure
Another important consideration is the lateral movement of the structure. The structure must withstand lateral forces to prevent collapse in areas prone to earthquakes or other natural disasters. This can be achieved through proper framing and bracing.
Divided Floor Plan
Finally, a divided floor plan can help with climate control and pest management. By dividing the grow room into separate areas, growers can create different climate zones based on the needs of other plants. This can also help prevent the spread of pests and diseases from one place to another.
Room Division Planning
Indoor cannabis operations usually have four grow rooms requiring unique environmental conditions, lighting schedules, and plant densities. The mother, clone, vegetative (veg), and flower rooms are these rooms.
The mother room contains large plants that possess the genetics necessary for production plants. This room is relatively small compared to other grow rooms, occupying only about 5% of the total cultivation space. The temperature in the mother room typically ranges between 70℉ and 85℉ with a humidity of 40% to 55% relative humidity (RH). The grow lights are on for 18 hours or more per day.
The clone room is the same size as the mother room, where leaves from mother plants are clipped and used to propagate new plants in small containers or trays on racks. The temperature in the clone room can vary, but usually, it ranges from 60℉ to 80℉ with a humidity of 50% to 70% RH. The grow lights are on for 18 to 24 hours per day.
The veg room is where plants are placed in larger containers on benches and spend around six weeks at this stage. This room requires about 20% of the total cultivation area. The temperature in the veg room can range from 70℉ to 85℉ with a humidity of 50% to 65% RH. The grow lights are on for 18 hours per day.
The flower room is the last stage before harvest, occupying around 70% of the indoor grow area. This room typically has stationary or moveable benches with temperatures of 72℉ to 85℉ and humidity of 45% to 60% RH. The grow lights are on for 12 hours daily, and the stage lasts six to ten weeks.
Facility Design and Infrastructure Considerations
When it comes to designing a facility for growing plants, several factors need to be taken into consideration. These factors are essential in ensuring a prosperous and healthy plant growth environment.
To maintain a healthy growing environment, you must consider several factors for climate control.
Temperature is crucial, as grow lights generate heat. Avoid using an oversized AC unit, as it can cause temperature fluctuations. Instead, use a suitably sized AC unit that runs on longer cycles for better stability.
Humidity is another important factor to consider. Plants only use a small percentage of the water provided, with the rest released into the air through transpiration. To maintain optimal humidity levels, use commercial dehumidifiers to remove the same amount of water given to the plants daily.
Air movement is also essential for healthy growth, as it strengthens plant stems and distributes CO2 for better growth. It also helps prevent humidity buildup around leaves and reduces the risk of mold.
Installing an air filtration system can help control pests, molds, and other harmful contaminants. Choose a system that is specifically designed for cannabis cultivation.
Airflow and Ventilation
Proper airflow and ventilation can help regulate temperature and humidity, prevent mold and mildew growth, and distribute carbon dioxide evenly throughout the grow room. Consider installing fans or air circulation systems to achieve optimal airflow.
An air exchange system is an advanced solution to air movement problems in commercial grow rooms. These systems bring in fresh air and remove stagnant air. To maximize airflow, you can add a carbon filter to the exhaust system.
Lighting Systems and Options
To start growing indoors, you need to get the lighting right. Before choosing the type of lights, ensure your grow room is light-proof to avoid any leaks affecting the plant's growth. Alternatively, you can select auto-flowering strains that are not affected by light.
To optimize the interior of your grow room, cover the walls with reflective material or white paint to evenly distribute the light and reach all parts of the plant.
There are three types of grow lights: